A participle clause can be used after a noun instead of a relative clause.
An -ing particle replaces an active verb
– Students hoping to go on the trip should register now.
An -ed participle replaces a passive verb
– Everyone selected for the team must see the coach today.
A participle clause can be used to replace words like because, since, so, as a result, when
– Tired after the long journey, they went to bed early.
– Having read the book, I found the film easy to follow.
– Having finally finished our shopping, we went and had a coffee.
We use the passive when the active form would require the use of an indefinite or vague pronoun or noun
– Someone will process your application soon.
– Your application will be processed soon.
We often use the passive to make a statement sound less personal, or to avoid mentioning the agent
– Offenders will be prosecuted.
We often use the passive with verbs such as think, believe, know and say to suggest that it is a general opinion
– She is said to be our gratest living writer.
We sometimes use the passive to avoid an awkward change of subject in the middle of a sentence
– She first saw the film when she was fifteen, and some on the scenes have haunted her ever since.
– She first saw the film when she was fifteen, and has been haunted ever since by some of the scenes.
If the subject is not the agent, we can use a passive infinitive
– There’s nothing else to be said about it.