The most common relative pronouns are:
– who : to refer to people
– which : to refer to things
– that : to refer to either people or things
– whose : the possesive of who and which
– when : used after nouns reffering to time
– where : used after nouns referring to place.
Defining relative clauses
– We use defining relative clauses to define or identify a noun. They tell us exactly which person, thing, time or place we are talking about.
– No commas are used.
– Defining relative clauses are common in informal speech.
– We can use that to refer to things. That can also be used in informal speech to refer to people.
That’s the shop where I got my new jeans.
Here’s the CD that you wanted.
Sally is the woman who is standing next to my door.
That’s the boy whose brother is in my class.
Non-defining relative clauses
– We use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information. They tell us more about a person, thing, time or place that is already identified.
– Commas are used before and after the relative clause.
– Non-defining relative clauses are generally more formal and more common in writing.
– We don’t usually use that in non-defining relative clauses.
Prague, where my uncle lives, is a very beautiful city.
In June, when the weather is warmer, we’ll have lunch in the garden.
I saw the new Harry Potter film, which I really loved.