The most common relative pronouns are:
– who : to refer to people
– which : to refer to things
– that : to refer to either people or things
– whose : the possesive of who and which
– when : used after nouns reffering to time
– where : used after nouns referring to place.
Defining relative clauses
– We use defining relative clauses to define or identify a noun. They tell us exactly which person, thing, time or place we are talking about.
– No commas are used.
– Defining relative clauses are common in informal speech.
– We can use that to refer to things. That can also be used in informal speech to refer to people.
– That’s the shop where I got my new jeans.
– Here’s the CD that you wanted.
– Sally is the woman who is standing next to my door.
– That’s the boy whose brother is in my class.
Non-defining relative clauses
– We use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information. They tell us more about a person, thing, time or place that is already identified.
– Commas are used before and after the relative clause.
– Non-defining relative clauses are generally more formal and more common in writing.
– We don’t usually use that in non-defining relative clauses.
– Prague, where my uncle lives, is a very beautiful city.
– In June, when the weather is warmer, we’ll have lunch in the garden.
– I saw the new Harry Potter film, which I really loved.