Adjectives ending in -ed
Adjectives ending in -ed or have the same form as the past participle of a verb, e.g. amazed, relieved, terrified, thrilled. We often use them to describe people’s feelings.
They normally follow be, feel, seem, look etc.
– I was amazed to hear I’d won the prize.
– What’s the matter? You seem a bit annoyed.
Adjectives ending in -ing
We use these adjectives to describe the effect that experiences or events have on us.
They can be used before the noun or after be and other linking verbs.
– That was a terrifying experience.
– The explanation was rather confusing.
Formation of adverbs from adjectives
1. Many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the adjective form of the word, e.g. clear – clearly.
For adjectives ending in -y, drop the y and add -ily, e.g. happy – happily.
For adjectives ending in -le, drop the e and add -y, e.g. gentle – gently.
For adjectives ending in -ic, add -ally, e.g. automatic – automatically.
2. Some words ending in -ly are adjectives only, not adverbs, e.g. cowardly, friendly, silly. If an adverb is needed, a phrase must be need.
– They greeted us in a friendly way/manner.
3. Some words ending in -ly can be used both as adjectives and adverbs, e.g. hourly, daily, nightly.
– Take the medicine twice daily (adv.).
– There is a daily (adj.) flight to the island.
4. Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives, e.g. early, fast, hard, still, straight; better, best, worse, worst.
– He’s got a fast (adj.) car and he drives it fast (adv.).
– She has straight (adj.) hair. He looked straight (adv.) at me.
5. Some adverbs have two forms, one like the adjective and the other form ending in -ly e.g. clear, close, direct, easy, free, hard, high, late. There is usually a difference in meaning.
– Stand clear of the doors. (= keep away)
– Try to speak more clearly. (= so we can understand)
– He works very hard. (= he makes a lot of effort)
– He had hardly any petrol left. (= almost none)
– The balloon was high up in the sky. (= a long way up)
– They think very highly of you. (= have a good opinion)
– Children under 12 travel free. (= they don’t have to pay)
– You can walk freely in the hotel grounds. (= without restrictions)
– The train arrived late. He’s not been very well lately. (= recently).